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  • Single stranded molecule
  • Straight chain molecule
  • Length varies between 100-1000 nucleotide long.
  • Made in the nucleus in a process known as ‘Transcription (re-writing code)
  • Function is to carry copy of the gene the nucleus to the cytoplasm for protein synthesis.


  • Single stranded molecule
  • Look like a clover leaf
  • Shape maintained by intermolecular hydrogen bond.
  • At one end it is exposed to Bases known as ‘ANTICODON’
  • Anticodon on t-RNA complementary base pair with codon on         m-RNA
  • At the end it has an amino acid attachment site
  • When t- RNA attaches to amino acid it is known as t-RNA + amino acid activation complex.


    • This is a structural component of a ribosome
    • Manufactured in the nucleolus
    • 80’s ribose
    • The big part is ‘50s and the smaller part is 30s)

    The wall of the r-RNA is made of r-RNA + protein = ribosome


Exercise and Respiration

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When a person is exercising their heart beats faster and when your heart bets faster its pumps more blood this supplies more glucose and oxygen this is shown that the person exercising increases

– There BREATHING RATE. This is because there more aerobic respiration.


– INCREASE IN DEPTH BRETAHING so you can pump more blood to the muscles and therefore supply more glucose and oxygen.

In the muscles the person is exercising so there is high glucose and oxygen supply. In the muscle there are 2 chemicals glucose and glycogen.

There’s 2 ways the muscle can get its glucose 
1. Is by increase heart rate so more blood pumping glucose  around the body into the muscle.

2. Also supply of glucose in the muscle that stored as the substance called glycogen 

-Glycogen are lots of glucose joined up together and its stored in that big form

– but when the body starts exercising the glycogen gets broken down into individual glucose units and it gets involved in respiration.


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  • Respiration happens only to provide energy.
  • There 2 kinds of respiration.

1. Aerobic respiration with oxygen.

2. Anaerobic respiration without oxygen.


I will be first talking about AREOBIC RESPIRATION


Aerobic respiration

  • Happens continuously.
  • Happens in all living things even in plant since they take energy from glucose.
    – Respiration happens in the mitochondria.
    -Plants also have mitochondria
    – majority of the aerobic respiration happens in the mitochondria
    – we use glucose and oxygen this enters the cell 2 products are made carbon dioxide and energy.
    – Energy can be used for anything.
    work equation for aerobic respiration

ENERGY from respiration is used for 4 things.
1- To join up molecules to make big substance. e.g amino acid builds for protein by using energy.
2- for movement, energy used for respiration is used to contract the muscle
3- in birds and mammals it produces heat and keep their body temperature to 37
4- plant use respiration to take sugar nitrate and a few other nutrience and build it up into amino acid and amino acids builds protein and protein can be used for lots things.