Biology

RNA

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m-RNA

  • Single stranded molecule
  • Straight chain molecule
  • Length varies between 100-1000 nucleotide long.
  • Made in the nucleus in a process known as ‘Transcription (re-writing code)
  • Function is to carry copy of the gene the nucleus to the cytoplasm for protein synthesis.

t-RNA

  • Single stranded molecule
  • Look like a clover leaf
  • Shape maintained by intermolecular hydrogen bond.
  • At one end it is exposed to Bases known as ‘ANTICODON’
  • Anticodon on t-RNA complementary base pair with codon on         m-RNA
  • At the end it has an amino acid attachment site
  • When t- RNA attaches to amino acid it is known as t-RNA + amino acid activation complex.

    t-RNA

    • This is a structural component of a ribosome
    • Manufactured in the nucleolus
    • 80’s ribose
    • The big part is ‘50s and the smaller part is 30s)

    The wall of the r-RNA is made of r-RNA + protein = ribosome


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Anaerobic Respiration

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Under certain condition your body does anaerobic reparation
sometime if you do heavy exercise you don’t have get enough oxygen going into the muscle to supply to carry aerobic respiration
so your body/muscle carries out anaerobic respiration .

And the equation for anaerobic respiration is,

GLUCOSE = LACTIC ACID + LITTLE BIT OF ENERGY

  • Lactic acid is a toxic substance.
  • Glucose during aerobic respiration is broken down in many steps into glucose and water during that process lots of energy is released
  • if there no oxygen present then you can only get a little bit of energy produced and we make lactic acid.
  •  When there a build up of lactic acid which is poisonous
    -the muscle become fatigued (tierd and weak) and stop contracting efficiently.

-The lactic acid has to be removed.

-The blood has to flow through muscle and take the lactic acid out. You feel it if you exercising too much.

Anaerobic respiration
– build up of lactic acid its poisonous so its removed by muscle.
– we have the process called oxidation

– Oxygen will come and oxidise the lactic acid which mean break it down and remove it.
– This example why someone breathes heavily after exercising
– you try supply oxygen to oxide the lactic acid and get rid of it this is called OXYGEN DEBT.
– The lactic acid can come along and be converted into carbon dioxide and water which can be removed from the both normal.

Exercise and Respiration

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When a person is exercising their heart beats faster and when your heart bets faster its pumps more blood this supplies more glucose and oxygen this is shown that the person exercising increases

– There BREATHING RATE. This is because there more aerobic respiration.

– INCRE HEART RATE

– INCREASE IN DEPTH BRETAHING so you can pump more blood to the muscles and therefore supply more glucose and oxygen.

In the muscles the person is exercising so there is high glucose and oxygen supply. In the muscle there are 2 chemicals glucose and glycogen.

There’s 2 ways the muscle can get its glucose 
1. Is by increase heart rate so more blood pumping glucose  around the body into the muscle.

2. Also supply of glucose in the muscle that stored as the substance called glycogen 

-Glycogen are lots of glucose joined up together and its stored in that big form

– but when the body starts exercising the glycogen gets broken down into individual glucose units and it gets involved in respiration.

Respiration

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  • Respiration happens only to provide energy.
  • There 2 kinds of respiration.

1. Aerobic respiration with oxygen.

2. Anaerobic respiration without oxygen.

 

I will be first talking about AREOBIC RESPIRATION

 

Aerobic respiration

  • Happens continuously.
  • Happens in all living things even in plant since they take energy from glucose.
    – Respiration happens in the mitochondria.
    -Plants also have mitochondria
    – majority of the aerobic respiration happens in the mitochondria
    – we use glucose and oxygen this enters the cell 2 products are made carbon dioxide and energy.
    – Energy can be used for anything.
    work equation for aerobic respiration
    GLUCSE + OXYGEN = CARBON DIXOIDE + WATER + ENERGY

ENERGY from respiration is used for 4 things.
1- To join up molecules to make big substance. e.g amino acid builds for protein by using energy.
2- for movement, energy used for respiration is used to contract the muscle
3- in birds and mammals it produces heat and keep their body temperature to 37
4- plant use respiration to take sugar nitrate and a few other nutrience and build it up into amino acid and amino acids builds protein and protein can be used for lots things.

Biology- Animal cells and plant cells

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All living things are made up of cells. The structures of different types of cells are related to their functions.

All cells have the same 5 feature:
– CELL MEMBRANE- controls what goes in and out of cells
– CYTOPLASM- A gel like substance all the chemical reaction happen here.
– NUCLEUS- controls all the activity of the cell and contain genetic information that can make a new organism.
– RIBOSOME – where protein synthesis occurs from amino acids.
– MITOCHONDRIA- produces energy from respiration.

Plant cells contain extra features like:

-Chloroplast: contain green pigment called chlorophyll which absorb sunlight.
– Permanent Vacuole- contains cell sap a weak solution of salts and sugars.
-Cell Wall- rigid outer layer provides strength and support for the cell.